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Reciprocating compressor can be of two main types: beskreytskopfny and cross-head. Reciprocating compressor beskreytskopfny low productivity is simple construction, has the best weight and size characteristics, so that in addition to use in stationary conditions, widely used in portable and transportation applications where the requirements of compactness and low mass are particularly important. This kind of reciprocating compressor runs with trunk piston, and the differential pistons. The surface area of the piston facing the crankcase, is dead in the trunk piston plunger, and when the differential – it may be used only partially. The role of the crosshead to the piston beskreytskopfnom komprssore itself to do the piston through it on the wall of the cylinder piston is passed, the normal component of force. This leads to increased wear of the piston and cylinder and an increase in leakage of gas through the piston seal, which comes into the crater. When compressing, toxic and explosive gases must take special measures to prevent the ingress of gas into the engine room.
In beskreytskopfnom reciprocating compressor to lubricate the cylinders and motion mechanism used compressor oil with sufficient viscosity at high temperature of the walls of the working chamber, but too viscous for motion mechanism, which leads to additional costs of the mechanical friction. Beskreytspkofny piston compressor inferior kreytspkofnomu to friction losses, in addition, at the same productivity they have big bore. The main advantages beskreyptskofnogo piston compressor – low weight and dimensions. Reciprocating compressor for the location of the cylinder axes in the space is divided into vertical, horizontal and angular. The most widely used angular reciprocating compressor with cylinder axes, symmetrical vertical (Y-and W-shaped), and vertical-horizontal (U-shaped or square).
Vertical reciprocating compressor has a smaller area, but a great performance is much more difficult to maintain. Cylinders vertical crosshead compressors are smaller and uniform wear, vertically directed forces of inertia are absorbed better foundation from which it can facilitate. The temperature and the elastic deformation in the vertical compressors are free. Horizontal reciprocating compressor – large cross-head compressor medium and high productivity. Widespread in recent years received a horizontal reciprocating compressor cylinder arrangement on both sides of the shaft, the so-called Boxer compressor, which has a substantial advantage over other types of compressors. The main advantage of boxer piston compressor in multilayer performance to the location of each row of one cylinder. In stages of low pressure where the volume of compressed gas is large, it is possible to have two or more cylinders in several rows. Therefore, the diameters of cylinders and pistons were significantly lower than in the horizontal reciprocating compressors previous designs with an arrangement of cylinders on one side of the shaft and the differential pistons. This made it possible to reduce the mass of moving parts and thus the value of the inertial forces. Angular reciprocating compressor V-, W-, fan-and star-shaped with odnokolennym shaft, joined by up to four rods. In the angular reciprocating compressors, especially when fan-shaped and star-performance, can be used also trailed rods, attached to the bottom of the head of the main rod. Angular reciprocating compressor with low productivity holds beskreytspkofnym, average – with kreytspkofom. The main advantages of angular piston compressor: well balanced with counterweights; cylinders are far removed from one another in the space between the rows of vertical and horizontal machines may be located in between refrigerator design simplicity and short length of the shaft, which promotes the use of rolling bearings, easy installation.